1.1 This specification covers the types, physical properties and dimensions of expanded polystyrene (EPS) intended for use as GeoFoam made from expanded polystyrene (EPS) for geotechnical, soil fill, Slope Stabilization, Embankments, Retaining Structures, Utility Protection, Pavement Insulation, and Landscape Design.
1.2 This specification does not cover the layout, placement and workmanship for proper installation and performance of GeoFoam.
1.3 GeoFoam shall be protected from certain chemicals, fire sources, extended exposure to sunlight, and concentrated loads. Specific design considerations with GeoFoam may include strength, deformation, thermal conductivity and buoyancy.
1.4 This specification does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of specific regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced ASTM Standards
C-203 Test Methods for Breaking Load and Flexural Properties of Block Type Thermal Insulation
C-390 Criteria for Sampling and Acceptance of Preformed Thermal Insulation Lots
C-578 Standard Specification for Rigid Cellular Polystyrene Insulation
D-1621 Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Cellular Plastics
D-1622 Test Method for Apparent Density of Rigid Cellular Plastics
D-2863 Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support Candle-like Combustion of Plastics.
3.1. GeoFoam - block or planar rigid cellular foam polymeric material used in geotechnical engineering applications.
3.2. Type I, II, VIII, IX, XI - alternate EPS type designation as per ASTM C-578 and Table 1 of this specification.
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4.1 This classification covers commonly manufactured types of GeoFoam as provided in Table 1.
5. Ordering Information
5.1 Acquisition documents shall specify the following:
5.1.1 The applicable specification. (Ex. ASTM-C-578).
5.1.2 Type as per Table I. (Ex. Type VIII as per ASTM-C-578).
5.1.3 Total product volume required.
6. Materials and Manufacture
6.1 GeoFoam shall be of uniform density and free of continuous voids.
7. Physical Requirements - as given in Table 1 and 2
7.1 Inspection Requirements for on site quality assurance:
7.1.1 Minimum density shall be in accordance with Table 1, or as specified.
7.1.2 Dimensional tolerances are described in Section 8, or as specified.
7.1.3 Finish and appearance requirements as described in Section 9, or as specified.
7.2 Qualification Requirements:
7.2.1 Confirm product quality by a third party certificate or independent laboratory test results, as specified. Minimum values of density, strength and modulus in uniaxial compression, flexural strength and oxygen index shall be in accordance with Table 1.
7.3 GeoFoam Types - Table I describes the commonly available types of GeoFoam; however, it does not cover all available densities that can be manufactured. It is the user's responsibility to specify density and design requirements and to obtain supporting documentation from the material supplier.
7.4 Combustibility Requirements - GeoFoam is an organic material and is combustible. GeoFoam must not be exposed to flames or other ignition sources. The values obtained by the oxygen index test (See Table I, and Section 10.2) do not necessarily indicate or describe the fire risk of the materials and are used in this specification primarily to distinguish between GeoFoam formulated with flame retardants and those not so formulated.
7.5 Curing - GeoFoam must be cured at the manufacturing plant before shipment. The curing duration must be sufficient to develop dimensional stability and to discharge remaining volatile organic blowing agents. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, GeoFoam shall be cured for a minimum of 3 days before delivery and inspection.
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8. Availability and Dimensional Tolerances
8.1 Availability - The GeoFoam materials covered by this specification are commonly available in the size range shown in Table II. Specific nominal block dimensions vary by manufacturer equipment characteristics.
8.2 Dimensional Tolerances - Unless otherwise specified, the acceptable length, width, thickness, squareness and flatness tolerance for GeoFoam shall not exceed + 0.5 per cent.
9. Finish and Appearance
9.1 Defects - GeoFoam shall have no defects that will adversely affect its service and workability qualities. Material units that manifest unacceptable aerial or volumetric damage shall be replaced.
9.2 Aerial defect - damage to load bearing GeoFoam surfaces shall be limited to less than 20 percent of the equivalent load bearing surface area of a single block.
9.3 Volume defect - volumetric damage of GeoFoam shall be limited to less than 1 percent of the volume of a block.
9.4 UV degradation - pressure washing may be used to remove discoloration and dusting of GeoFoam caused by extended exposure to sunlight and to restore interface friction strength, if required.
10. Quality Assurance
10.1 Sampling - unless otherwise specified in the purchase order or contract, the material shall be sampled in accordance with Criteria C-390. Accordingly, materials shall be presented in lots of 151 or more for normal or tightened inspection, as required. Where the total volume to be supplied amounts to 150 units or less, either a third party certificate or tightened inspection criteria of C-390 should be used as a basis for acceptance.
10.2 Weight - determine the weight of selected full size units in accordance with Test Method D-1622 or as specified.
10.3 Dimensions - verify specified dimensions and tolerances, as prescribed in Test Method D-1622 and section 8.2 of this specification.
10.4 Density - compute the density of test samples in accordance with Test Method D-1622. The computed density must meet or exceed the minimum value for the GeoFoam type given in Table 1.
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11. Acceptance or Rejection
11.1 Material that fails to conform to the above quality assurance criteria or specified requirements shall be rejected in writing promptly. The manufacturer or supplier shall have the right to re-inspect a rejected shipment and resubmit selected units for acceptance under tightened inspection.
12.1 Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order or contract, the manufacturer or supplier shall furnish a letter of certification from an accredited and independent third party. Manufacturing quality control data and product validation test results shall be retained for review and inspection as required.
13. Product Marking
13.1 The following shall be marked on each unit of product:
13.1.1 Manufacturers identification,
13.1.2 Date of manufacture,
13.1.3 ASTM-C578 type numbers (See Table I),
13.1.4 Weight, and Lot number, to include resin source and type.